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13 Cards in this Set

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3 Theoretical Perspectives:


Functionalism

Functionalism: This perspective is an oddly positive way to look at society. It explains that each part of society is dependent on other parts of society and vice versa. All aspects of our society are interdependent, and rely on each other to function. Functionalism is a very passive way to look at sociology. It does not challenge the way things are, but in fact believes that whatever is happening in society is supposed to happen.


Example: (Marriage) The traditional family structure in which the husband was a breadwinner and the wife tended children and did housework was “functional.” Men could earn more income and women were naturally better at childcare and thus, the traditional family structure worked.

3 Theoretical Perspectives:


Conflict Perspective

Conflict Perspective: A more negative approach to sociology. Conflict theory focuses on how certain parts of our society are in conflict with each other, and how the "elite" members of our society oppressed the lower class for their own gain.


Example: (Marriage) The male breadwinner model benefits men in 2 ways. It reduces potential competition from women in the labor market and it downplays women's contributions in domestic work. This model demonstrates that men have the upper hand in society.

3 Theoretical Perspectives:


Symbolic Interactionism

Symbolic Interactionism: This perspective focuses on symbols that can be found in society, what those symbols mean to each of us, and how those symbols affect the way we interact with others in our society.


Example: (Marriage) Symbolic interactionists would suggest that couples negotiate their particular roles. Through verbal and non-verbal interactions, they can negotiate things like if and how many children they will have and how domestic chores should be split.

7 Steps of the Scientific Method:


Identifying the Problem

Identifying the Problem: Choose an object or a topic for investigation.


Example: The researcher decides to study the intelligence level of "only children," children without siblings.

7 Steps of the Scientific Method:


Reviewing the Literature

Reviewing the Literature: (1) Examine the literature for relevant theories and previous research findings. (2) Gather data about the problem.


Example: The researcher reads past theory and research on the sociability of "only children."

7 Steps of the Scientific Method:


Formulating Hypotheses

Formulating Hypotheses: Using previous findings, form a theory containing an independent and dependent variable that are defined precisely enough to to be measurable.


Example: From previous research and existing theory, the researcher states that "only children" appear to be more intelligent than children with siblings.

7 Steps of the Scientific Method:


Developing a Research Design

Developing a Research Design: Describing the procedures the researcher will follow for collecting and analyzing the data.


Example: The researcher decides on the data needed to test a hypothesis, the methods for data collection, and the techniques for data analysis.

7 Steps of the Scientific Method:


Collecting Data

Collecting Data: Using the three basic ways of gathering data in sociological research, collect data for your hypothesis.


Example: The researcher collects data on "only children" from a high school in a large city.

7 Steps of the Scientific Method:


Analyzing Data

Analyzing Data: After the data is collected, analyze it to determine is whether the hypotheses are supported.


Example: The researcher classifies and processes the data collected to test a hypothesis.

7 Steps of the Scientific Method:


Stating Findings & Conclusions

Stating Findings & Conclusions: Based on your findings, conclude an answer to your hypotheses.


Example: The researcher writes a report giving evidence that “only children” are more intelligent than children with siblings.

3 Basic Types of Norms:


Folkways

Folkways: (1) Rules that cover customary ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving but lack moral over tones. (2) Relatively weak and informal norms that are the result of patterns of actions.


Example: “Manners” like shanking hands when introduced or opening doors for elders.

3 Basic Types of Norms:


Mores

Mores: (1) Norms of great moral significance that are thought to be vital to the well being of a society. (2) Stronger norms that are informally enforced. They are moral attitudes that are seen as serious, even if there are no actual laws that prohibit them.


Example: Religious doctrines are an example of mores, like if someone were to attend church in the nude, they’d offend most of the people of that culture and would be morally shunned.

3 Basic Types of Norms:


Laws

Laws: Norms that are formally defined and enforced by officials.


Example: Driving while drunk, theft, and murder are all examples and if they’re violated the person could get cited, own a fine, or go to jail.