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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why is monopoly significant?
a symbol of the first chapter. a metaphor for society.
•Like how we play monopoly, we don't all have the same resources.
There are pressures and paths of least resistance
Individualism
individualism sees social problems as reulting from flaws in individual character. --> factors outside of a persons control. didn't lose a job b/c they were lazy --> societal factors
How did individualism spread?
18th century- enlightenment- science and reason
19th century- utilitarianism -->rugged cowboy, darwin (survival of the fittest), william james-reflexive self
Ideology
A set of beliefs, attitudes, and opinions that may or may not be based on scientific evidence.

Ideologies are created by groups
Dominant Discourse
Either the way most people think and speak about a particular issue or the way that the people in power think and speak about a particular issue
David Durkheim
1858-1917
The study of the group (sociology) is more powerful in understanding human behavior than either biology or psychology.
Johnson's view of how society works...
we all participate in multiple social systems
A social system is a collection of roles in relationship to one another, forming a coherent whole.
It's like Monopoly but not everyone starts off with equal privilege
Impact of individuals
That systems exert strong influence over our behavior but that it is also true we influence the larger systems aw we participate in them.
Social systems <--> Individuals
we make social systems happen--> we can be apart of changing it
As we participate in it, social systems shape us-->our lives are shaped by socialization and paths of least resistance
Page numbers:
Privilege, Individualism, Social System, Suicide, Individual Action vs. Systems action, social position or social location, paths of least resistance
Privilege 8, Individualism 9,20 , Social System 13, Suicide 21, Individual Action vs. Systems action 2, 31, social position or social location 34, paths of least resistance 17
significance of suicide
white males have highest suicide rate, suicide is personal but it is actually shaped by social systems. all behavior is shaped by social systems
Culture
the way we construct reality within a social system, using ideas and symbols (especially language) to assign meaning... and it's the way we habitually behave in relationship to the meaning we have constructed
Beliefs
What a society says is true. Society says earth is round, another says it's flat- a belief
Values
Beliefs that designate what is good/bad, better/worse.
Guide choices.
Guide how we treat others which can be a problem when it's based on identity not behavior.
Norms
Values that are reinforced with social consequences (rewards, punishments)
Society creates "paths of least resistance"
Norms can be seen as functional, norms can be a basis for privilege, stigmatization
Two key perspectives on norms
Functionalism- they help society work/succeed
Conflict- they create and preserve inequalities
Attitudes
Reactions-- often with emotional content-- based on beliefs, values and norms
Material Culture
The physical expression of our beliefs, values, norms and attitudes

Can be used in problematic ways
Ethnocentrism vs. cultural relativity
different but perhaps equally as good at fulfilling their separate missions
Status
the position one holds in a given social system
a position can be permanent: "father", or temporary: "pedestrian"
• position ≠ person
a judge is not a judge all the time.
• Behavior may be more a function of position than personality
we behave certain ways when were fulfilling positions
Position both empowers and constrains
We have to pay tuition, failure is not an option
Status per McGinn
the degree of honor that a position or group receives within a social system.
High status-great honor, low status-low honor
Role
Tole= collection of beliefs, values, attitudes and norms that apply to a position holder (in relationship to other position holders)
Roles create paths of least resistance for the position holder
This shapes/influences how we behave
Role Conflict
Holding multiple positions in overlapping social systems can create role conflict.
Role structure
the relationship that link statuses- or entire systems to one another- are the main part of what we think of as social structure
every system has a role structure that consists of a mix of statuses and role relationships
shared values vs. unequal distribution
americans value possessions but not all have means to obtain those possessions...
Results in strain and contradiction that people will try to solve---stolen crystal
The larger the gap between the distribution of values and the distribution of opportunities for achieving them, the more likely deviance is to occur
example: students who cheat may be following a path of least resistance in their system
MARX: Many people believe that the arrangement in which men work outside as family provider and women stay home and don't work is a natural way of arranging family life that has always been around
the pattern of wives and mothers working outside the home is are part of long term adaptation by families to an industrialist capitalist world that, like every society before it , require most adults to work for money in order for families to survive
Culture shapes the roles associated with various statuses or positions in a social structure BUT
culture also shapes the unequal distribution within a structure AND unequal distributions within social structures can shape culture: our beliefs, values, norms, attitudes and material culture
Merton's Theory
Robert Merton's theory about deviant behavior that results from the conflict between shared values and unequal distributions.
Demography:
the statistical study of human populations esp. patterns of birth, death and migration
Human ecology
the study of the relationships that exist among individuals, social systems and the physical environment and the consequences of those relationships. physical arrangements of social systems, even cyberspace
PAGES: rate of black suicide and world population: social factors
Death: 135
World population: 137-8
William James
1842-1910
What is self?-material self, social self and spiritual self.
John Duey
Professor at michigan --> u chicago
Charles Horton Cooley
1864-1929, the looking glass self
grew up in a2, graduated from umich.
George Herbert Mean
1863-1931
What is the social basis of individual action?
More interactive, meaning and identity were created from social interactions
taught at umich--> went to chicago
Robert Park
1864-1944
The self and social roles
Everyone is always and everywhere, more or less consciously playing a role"
undergrad at michigan
Erving Goffman
1922-1982
Givens definition to the social thoughts of cooley, the interpersonal gestures of mead and the roles of park.
Goffman: Dramaturgy
The person is a kind of construct, built up from moral rules that are impressed on him from without.
Self is the product of dramatic interaction between actor and audience to each other
Language allows us to bridge between others' meaning and our meaning. Then we can construct all kinds of ideas about ourselves.
p 132-33
Generalized other (known only be their status/role) vs. Significant other (known by their individual behavior)
p 135-136
Behavior (everything we do) vs Action (intended gestures based on social meanings)
p 138
Our actions are like those of an actor with an audience: we try to create certain impressions (the question of authenticity)
p 138-140
Few things are as important or as tricky to grasp as the relationships between people and systems
p 142
We are objects of culture; we are subjects of culture (it operates on us; we operate on it)
p 142
Jazz is an analogy for society: individual players have freedom, but they play within existing musical forms. And the music happens among the players as well as with each player
p 142
Every situation is defined by a reality that exists only as people actively shape and support it
p 145
Because the methods we use to sustain a social reality are used over and over again, they take on a ritual quality
p 147
Social inequality is ritualized patterns that contribute to privleging some groups over others
p 148-151