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55 Cards in this Set

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From Conley, which definition best describes the practice of sociology?
The study of human society
As defined by C. Wright Mills, which of the following "enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within society"?
Sociological imagination
Charles H. Cooley argued that the "self" emerges from how an individual interacts with others and then interprets those interactions. He calls this:
The looking-glass self
Which of the following modern sociological theories grew from Durkheim's and others' ideas that the best way to analyze society was to identify the roles that different aspects or phenomena play in the overall structure of society?
Functionalism
Which modern sociological theory examines how power relationships are defined, shaped, and reproduced on the basis of gender differences?
Feminism
In contrast to functionalism, which modern sociological theory borrows from Marx's belief that competition, not consensus, is the essential cause of social change?
Conflict theory
Conflict theory holds that
Human social life is shaped by struggles among individuals and social groups
Which of the following are prominent features of the last several million years of hominid evolution (the evolution of human-like beings)?
The development of erect posture and bipedal locomotion
The increased development and reliance on tools
Major increases in brain size, complexity and capacity
(all of the above)
The symbols that humans use are distinct from the signs used by other species in that
Symbols are productive and can take on a variety of meanings
According to your class notes, the major components of human societies and cultures are
A material infrastructure, social structure and ideological superstructure
The biological process of natural selection is not truly operative in sociocultural evolution because:
Natural selection operates on random variations
Most sociocultural variation is deliberately introduced
(two answers)
In the functionalist perspective, social institutions are:
Understood in terms of the benefits they provide for society as a whole
In the conflict perspective, social institutions are:
Scarce and a primary source of conflict between individuals and groups
Which of the following focuses its analyses on face-to-face encounters and interactions?
Microsociology
Which of the following focuses its analyses on larger social dynamics at the societal and structural levels?
Macrosociology
Harvard University admits 3000 freshmen selected from 20,000 applications for admission each fall. Among those admitted are children of prominent alumni who contribute large sums of money to the university. This process assures that new generations of Harvard graduates will come from the same families as old Harvard graduates. This description of how education works is most consistent with the:
Conflict perspective
The University of Iowa admits 5000 freshmen selected from 10000 applications for admission each fall. Extensive financial aid packages are offered so that all who meet the basic academic qualifications are admitted to the University. The state of Iowa hopes that the most qualified graduates from the University of Iowa will graduate and take jobs in the state, becoming productive citizens and taxpayers. This description of how education works is most consistent with the:
Functionalist perspective
The interactionist perspective focuses on
Everyday life
A problem that would be most relevant for study from an interactionist perspective would be:
How one should dress for a job interview
Marx's theory of social change is most clearly identified with:
Historical materialism
The two general categories of sociological research are known as:
Quantitative and qualitative
The variable or outcome that a sociologist explains is known as the:
Dependent variable
The measured factors that a sociologist believes have a casual impact on another variable are known as the:
Independent variables
The subset of a population from which a researcher collects date is known as a:
Sample
Research subjects have a right to know that they are participating in a study and what the study consists of. This is known as:
Informed consent
In the study of culture, norms that have moral significance attached to them are called:
Mores
While almost all forms of music talk about gender relationships and sex, warning labels are attached only to certain types of music. Which explanation of culture accounts for this practice?
Conflict explanations of culture
In biological explanations of evolution, how is "fitness" determine?
By reproductive success (producing offspring)
In the interactionist perspective, social life is possible because:
We play roles
It is important to take into account differences across cultures without making value judgements. This is known as:
Cultural relativism
While they are difficult to define, ____________ are smaller subgroups within a larger dominant society that share some of the dominant cultural values, but also have some of their own, unique material and nonmaterial or symbolic culture.
Subcultures
The experience of learning a culture's norms, values, and so on is known as:
Socialization
Gramsci's concept for the historical process in which a dominant group exercises moral and intellectual leadership by voluntarily receiving the approval and consent of the masses is known as:
Hegemony
The O.J. Simpson murder case and Hurricane Katrina are examples of which of the following?
How the media reflects racist ideology
In the United States, six major companies, including Disney and Time-Warner, own what percentage of the media?
90%
Concepts such as I, me, and generalized other are part of which theorist's work?
Mead's
Which theory uses game playing to understand the development of self?
Mead's role-playing theory
Which theorist extends his theory of socialization to span an entire lifetime, rather than just limiting it to explanations of childhood or adolescence?
Erickson
Military boot camps and prisons are places that control all of the basis of people's day-to-day lives, and are known as:
Total institutions
Involuntary statuses that we are born into are called:
Ascribed statuses
Voluntary statuses that we become over time are called:
Achieved statuses
In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, at which stage are children most likely to believe that inanimate objects are alive and the world revolves around them?
The preoperational period
In Paiget's theory of cognitive development, around what age is a fully-functioning cognitive adult formed?
Around 12 years old
According to Randall Collin's (1979) research, the expansion of higher education is:
A result of credentialism and expenditures on formal education
All of the following are needed to establish causality EXCEPT:
Panel study results
Ritzer wrote about Cathedrals of Consumption; which of these best describes what Cathedrals of Consumption are designed for?
To artistically and scientifically lure people into consumption
Lovaglia writes about the power of the situation over the individual. One component of this is what social psychologist call correspondence bias. Which of these is the best description of a correspondence bias?
Giving another credit for being competent when in fact it is their social position which is responsible for their competence
Which of the following would Ritzer consider a "new means of consumption"?
Credit Cards
The tendency to perceive oneself favorably is:
The self-serving bias
When Social psychologiest talk about status expectations as self fulfilling they are referring to the idea that:
When an individual is expected to be more competent they are given more opportunities to perform and they make more contributions in a group
Ritzer proposes that Americans have more and are consuming more which has:
Not lead Americans to be happier than they were 40 years ago
Which of the following writers is identified with idealistic perspectives on social change?
Max Weber
Which of the following statements best characterizes dialectical models of social change?
Every social arrangement contains contradictions and social change is driven by them
According to William F. Ogburn, what is cultural lag?
The idea that material culture changes more rapidly than non-material aspects of culture
In our lecture on THE PROTESTANT ETHIC AND THE SPIRIT OF CAPITALISM, why does Protestant theology help the development of capitalism?
Because Protestantism encourages saving and discourages present consumption